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Places for people: A vision for inclusive new communities

It’s 2030 and new sustainable neighborhoods have sprung up in the heart of major cities, across the developed world. They are inclusive and foster cohesive communities in which neighbors know and support each other. People of all ages want to live in them.

Houses are affordable and the surrounding areas are safe and secure, promoting multigenerational community living. Buildings are low-carbon and adaptable to different uses, supporting living, working, and socializing.

The neighborhoods generate much of their own energy. They are largely traffic-free, accessible to all, with pedestrian routes, cycle lanes, open spaces, playgrounds, and greenery to encourage outdoor activity and support well-being, as well as sustain and restore ecology and biodiversity.

Equality is important. People’s needs are met locally, with easy access to shops, schools, restaurants, health centers, and leisure facilities. Excellent public transportation provides equally easy access to work, services, and amenities outside the immediate area. Homes and infrastructure are digitally connected, helping to optimize performance and improve people’s quality of life.

This is how.

Best use of space

Best use of space

Major cities in developed economies continue to expand, remaining the most desirable places to live, work, and play. Underused land owned by local authorities, transportation agencies, and utilities has been transformed into attractive new neighborhoods that enhance and strengthen the existing community, making space for young people, families, the elderly, and growing businesses.

Developments are mixed-use, providing much needed low-carbon, high-quality, affordable homes and community facilities as well as local amenities and places to work. They’re the catalyst for wider regeneration, creation of new and improved infrastructure, and provision of community benefits, bringing new jobs and boosting local economies.

Developers and investors are attracted by the residential, retail, leisure, and commercial opportunities. Landowners such as transportation agencies enjoy additional revenue streams while helping to drive positive social outcomes across cities.

Delivering positive outcomes for all

Delivering positive outcomes for all

Two critical agendas have come together. The need to create better places for people — accessible, inclusive, and resilient, empowering citizens and contributing to improved well-being — is enshrined in the purpose of most public and private organizations, supported by policy and legislation (see 11. Giving everyone a voice). At the same time, local authorities and transportation providers must generate new revenue to counter the long-term fiscal and financial impacts of COVID-19.

The result: Central and local governments collaborate with private-sector partners. Together they develop unneeded and underutilized sites, pursuing strategies to address social exclusion and inequality, reduce poverty, and improve health and well-being. They create new neighborhoods, providing affordable and sustainable housing, leisure facilities, and car-free streets and public spaces that encourage walking, cycling, and outdoor exercise.

Communities are mixed, containing apartments for young adults, family homes, and housing for older people and those with particular access requirements. Less traffic and more vegetation have reduced air pollution and urban heat: two of the biggest risks to health in urban areas, particularly for the youngest and oldest citizens. Since the COVID-19 pandemic, buildings and spaces are designed and managed to reduce crowding and the risk of infection.

Convenient and safe public transport linked by a network of multimodal transport hubs enables residents to travel easily outside their area to access employment, education, and training, essential services such as health and social care, and recreation. On-demand mobility services are available as and when required.

Inspiring change: Our social outcomes framework is built around five core principles. We use these to set objectives for, and measure the success of, the projects we work on.

  • Accessibility: to housing, transportation, and amenities
  • Inclusion: no one left behind, diverse participation with rights, freedoms and choice, equality between people
  • Empowerment: inclusive and regenerative growth, access to education, training, and secure employment, information, and communications
  • Resilience: inclusive public spaces and natural environment, climate resilient and sustainable communities, sustainable energy, water, and sanitation systems
  • Well-being: good mental and physical health, safety, and security, access to quality health and social care

Inspiring change: COVID-19 and the future of transportation

Inspiring change: Aviation and COVID-19

Future working

Future working

Spurred on by the coronavirus pandemic in 2020-2021, the number of people commuting daily into central business districts has declined. Many in the knowledge economy are going to company offices only one or two days a week, working the rest of their time from home or in local co-working and meeting spaces.

These shared workplaces have been developed by transportation agencies at or close to local transportation hubs. Alongside them, space for small service businesses, shops, restaurants, health centers, leisure facilities, and homes have been created. Schools, healthcare facilities, and entertainment venues are at most a 15-minute trip away by public transportation.

The shift in working patterns has created thriving local economies, generating jobs for local people. Direct and indirect taxes on the greater number of burgeoning local businesses generate additional revenue for local authorities and landowners.

Low-carbon living

Low-carbon living

Buildings and infrastructure are net-zero carbon, making the new developments eligible for green bonds and loans, and financial support from the world’s largest institutional investors — all of which are committed to climate-responsible investment.

Smart building management systems optimize energy consumption and comfort, while passive measures such as natural lighting and shading reduce energy demand. Solar panels in roofs, windows, and facades generate power, with surpluses stored for future consumption. Renewable energy from the national grid tops up supplies as necessary.

Countries are fast decarbonizing their heat networks. Hydrogen boilers, ground source heat pumps, and electric power meet thermal comfort needs in new developments. District heat networks, powered by renewable electricity and hydrogen, are beginning to supply heat in densely populated urban areas, following the introduction of policies and regulations in 2025 to protect consumers and accelerate investment in the infrastructure.

In some locations, heat networks enable "waste" heat to be captured from city tunnels or data centers, for example, and transferred to schools and hospitals. Interseasonal thermal energy storage, using underground boreholes, is starting to prove its worth for both heating and cooling.

Digitally empowered

Digitally empowered

Everyone is digitally connected. High-speed broadband is supplied to every household, with the cost of connection and a web-capable device covered by government for the poorest.

Home working is practical for many people. This is particularly beneficial for employees with who are caregivers and those with restricted mobility, but it is appreciated by all. It is easier to access essential services, from social support to healthcare and banking. Seeking employment is simpler. Students regularly attend lessons and submit work online.

Digitalization has also transformed the infrastructure industry by enabling data to be used for improved decision-making, which in turn delivers better outcomes and value for clients and society. Known in the industry as "Infrastructure 4.0," the shift encompasses the following:

  • Digital planning, modeling, and design, encompassing augmented and virtual reality — which enables rapid optioneering, stakeholder engagement and feedback, and design optimization
  • Digitally enabled collaboration, which enables the creation of integrated teams to deliver and manage buildings and infrastructure, focusing on common goals and desired outcomes
  • Robotics and design for manufacture and assembly — creating buildings and infrastructure more efficiently and safely, with high quality and lower carbon emissions
  • Digital twins (digital representations of the real world) supported by artificial intelligence, machine learning and automation, sensors, and real-time data streaming — which together enable performance improvements in asset delivery and through-life operation and management

Landowners, architects, planners, designers, and engineers are using sophisticated geospatial tools and data to map, design, and enhance sites, streets, neighborhoods, and even cities.

Digital tools and solutions enable spatial modeling, analysis, and visualization, helping inform decisions about everything from how to balance social, economic, and environmental needs across a site, to where solar panels should be installed for maximum energy yield, to planning walking and cycling routes for greatest convenience and safety.

Digital twins are produced as a matter of course for all major new buildings and infrastructure. The data in digital twins provides asset owners and operators with insight into performance and condition, and how users feel. It enables them to make better interventions that produce better outcomes for people and communities.

Inspiring change: How can we spearhead city-scale digital twins?

Well connected

Well connected

All the essentials for thriving, sustainable communities and high levels of well-being have been considered in developing the new neighborhoods. They are well served by infrastructure, convenient public services, open green spaces, and facilities. They are resilient, able to adapt and cope with anything from severe weather to a health pandemic. They are built to evolve over time, in step with society’s changing needs.

It’s no accident. The digital revolution has enabled a far better understanding of the interconnections and interdependencies between the engineered, natural, physical, and socioeconomic systems that make cities work and that society depends on.

The result has been ever better collaboration and coordination between all the different players involved in creating successful large-scale urban developments. These players work closely with diverse community representatives to set out objectives, based on clearly defined needs and desired outcomes.

Building better

Building better

From the mid-2020s, buildings and infrastructure have been assembled onsite using design for manufacture and assembly (DfMA). Designs are based on modular, standardized components, built in a factory and then assembled when they arrive on site.

For the people who live and work in buildings created using DfMA, the benefits come from design and build quality: they’re warmer in winter and cooler in summer, saving money on energy bills and providing better comfort. They provide better noise insulation, and they’re adaptable. Modular buildings created using DfMA are easy to alter by adding or removing components to suit changing purposes, lifestyles, and demands for space. Ultimately, they are also easy to disassemble.

As a result of incentives and corporate social purpose, DfMA manufacturing hubs are located in areas of high socioeconomic deprivation. They support thousands of high-value jobs in different parts of the country, helping to address regional inequalities. Those jobs are safer than traditional construction.

Further benefits include reductions in time, cost, materials, and waste. On-site activities are limited to access, foundations, assembly of manufactured components, finishing, and landscaping. This means there is far less construction-related disruption to those living or working next to a project site.

All projects delivered using DfMA are digitally equipped, enabling building and infrastructure owners and managers to monitor performance and condition, and to plan repairs, maintenance, or improvements to best meet the needs of end users.

At one with nature

At one with nature

Regenerative design principles have been widely adopted and are increasingly encouraged by local planning policy, regulation, and legislation, and by financial incentives.

Regenerative design goes beyond sustainability: it is about building back healthy, biodiverse, and vital ecosystems, rather than merely doing no harm. "Urban regeneration," sparked by the creation of new neighborhoods and the improvement of existing ones, takes on new meaning.

Better social and economic outcomes go hand in hand with better outcomes for the environment. Semi-wild public spaces, green roofs and walls, urban gardening, streetscape planting, and natural drainage solutions — along with a dramatic decline in transportation-related air pollution and noise are encouraging the return of plant, animal, and insect species not seen in cities for decades.

Steel and concrete are still used in construction. Both materials are energy-intensive to produce and therefore have high embodied carbon footprints. However, this can be offset by using timber and biomaterials in addition to steel and concrete, and growing vegetation. Research and investment in plant-based and bio-fabricated construction materials has brought a number of carbon-neutral and carbon-negative products to market. Standards and specifications are being adapted to encourage their use, and the supply chain is expanding.

Advances in construction mean that new buildings and infrastructure consume fewer virgin materials. Waste has been eliminated from both construction and demolition by a flourishing circular economy, with new specialist companies working to enable the effective reduction, recovery, reuse, and recycling of almost everything.

New buildings and infrastructure are designed to generate and store energy for the community and capture rainwater for reuse.

Green and blue, not always gray

Green and blue, not always gray

Nature-based solutions can be found in most new developments, supplementing and replacing conventional gray infrastructure — the piped systems used to collect and dispose of rainwater and wastewater for the past century and more.

Green and blue infrastructure consists of parks and wild land, and features to collect and dissipate water: for example, swales, ditches, ponds, lakes, streams, and rivers. This is often less costly to deliver than conventional drainage infrastructure and requires less maintenance. And it offers much wider benefits: it brings people a little closer to nature. Green and blue infrastructure enhances the urban environment, filtering pollution from the air as well as in rainwater runoff, encouraging biodiversity, and making a dramatic contribution to people’s health and well-being.

Natural drainage and flood management provides protection and improves resilience against intense rainfall, which is becoming more frequent and severe as a consequence of climate change. Wetlands are used in urban spaces to capture and clean stormwater, replenishing underground aquifers. Trees provide shade and help to reduce the urban heat island effect. Without abundant green space, a city of a million people can be up to 3°C warmer than its surroundings.

Innovative design and engineering are making the most of limited space, with vegetated drainage channels and planted corridors along streets, green roofs and walls on buildings, small "pocket parks" between buildings, and safe routes for active travel.

Green and blue infrastructure has made neighborhoods better and healthier places to live and work.

Project delivery: Green streets in Philadelphia

Inspiring change: Green versus gray infrastructure what's best?

Financial models

Financial models

National infrastructure investment banks are channeling money into projects that support inclusive economic growth and tackle climate change, providing a long-term source of capital at low cost in the form of equity. Housing is a priority in most developed countries and transcends short political cycles. This has created policy stability and encourages private-sector investment and collaboration with the public sector.

Local planning controls and taxes ensure that the gains from urban development undertaken by private landowners deliver a wider public benefit. The money raised repays loans taken out by public agencies to provide infrastructure and public services, including transportation.

Long-term political commitment, the alignment of public, institutional, and private-sector investment, supporting controls and equitable taxes create the right conditions for landowners to put underutilized sites to better use, adding to the amount of land available and increasing the density of new developments. The result is less urban sprawl, less land speculation, and reduced financial risk for developers.

Giving everyone a voice

Giving everyone a voice

Places are only great if they succeed for everyone, providing the conditions for every person to thrive. To ensure this happens, planning authorities and developers are legally required to involve community stakeholders in shaping plans and choosing designs. But stakeholder engagement goes far beyond "compliance." People from local communities are consulted to help define the outcomes that new neighborhoods should deliver, right at the start. Social outcomes are the primary focus of city regeneration projects and developments.

This is because policymakers, planners, landowners, developers, and the construction and infrastructure industries all recognize that engaging and listening to communities is key to achieving projects that perform better for all — community and industry alike. It enables them to do all this:

  • Gain vital insight into community needs and goals, how people connect with each other and their neighborhoods, and how to use public spaces — allowing the needs of all members of society to be understood and addressed, achieving neighborhoods that are accessible, inclusive, and resilient, that empower citizens and promote well-being
  • Achieve greater community buy-in and a sense of ownership
  • Build trust and establish dialogue
  • Gain clarity on exactly what is required, resulting in "right the first time" delivery and reduced need for retrofit solutions to meet community needs
  • Reduce objections, change, and the risk of delays to projects
  • Improve cost certainty
  • Create sustainable communities, supported by sustainable and resilient infrastructure and businesses
  • Achieve financial sustainability through stable long-term revenues

Digital tools are widely used, overcoming physical and cultural obstacles that can exclude hard-to-reach, disadvantaged, and marginalized groups from attending traditional public meetings. The result is a more socially inclusive consultation and engagement process.

Living well

Living well

From 2020 to 2030, all those involved in creating and managing the built environment have awoken to the importance of creating the social, environmental, and economic conditions that enable people to live well. In practical terms, that means buildings and infrastructure meet the needs of end users and are sustainable, secure, and resilient to future shocks — such as floods, droughts, and pandemics. Digital technology plays a key role in achieving this.

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